Dr. Paul Orina
Paul Sagwe Orina a freshwater aquaculture research scientist in KMFRI doubles as the Freshwater Aquaculture Assistant Director and the Center Director Kegati Aquaculture Research Center. Dr Orina is the national chairman of the Technologies Assessment Technical Team (TATT) under the Agriculture Sector Development Support Program (ASDSP) focusing on Agriculture Value Chains for commercialization and the country scientific technical member of the Kenyan aquaculture team on Technologies for African Agriculture Transformation (TAAT) a WorldFish project. Prior to joining the aquaculture sub-sector,
Dr Orina had 13 years’ experience in freshwater fisheries while working for KMFRI in Lakes Turkana and Naivasha and now has served for 12 years under freshwater aquaculture. He has vast knowledge on fish breeding and culture systems with a major focus on indigenous commercially important fish species domestication and conservation of genetic material. He headed the inception of private investment of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries in Kenya (2010-2016) resulting in the rise from less than 30 to over 100. He is the head of the tilapia breeding program in Kenya initiated in 2012 and currently at the F8 generation.
Dr Orina has been a team member and PI of various locally and internationally funded aquaculture and agriculture projects. Local and regional projects include the Kenya Agricultural Productivity and Agribusiness Program (KAPAP), Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa (ASARECA), Strengthening Institutional Capacity for Participatory Action Research in Aquaculture (USAID-PEER), National Research Fund (NRF), National Council of Science and Technology (NACOST) and Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Project. International projects include the recently concluded BBSRC fund in collaboration with India and the UK, Technologies for African Agriculture Transformation (TAAT) a WorldFish (Malysia) funded project in partnership with African Development Bank (AfDB) and St John York University Seed Fund for Climate Smart Aquaculture Technologies in Africa. Locally,
Dr Orina is the KMFRI lead partner in the National Research Fund on Mycrocystins in Lake Victoria in collaboration with Maseno, Masinde Muliro and Moi Universities in Kenya. Recent projects as PI include Visualizing aquaculture potential in Kenya in collaboration with Conservation International courtesy of Open Society Foundation (OSF) and Fish and Limnological Survey in Sindo Bay, Lake Victoria, Kenya a Conservation International Grant. Dr Orina has mentored many MSc and PhD students 2012. He is also a facilitator in the Fisheries and Aquaculture MSc. Module for the International MSc. Program in Limnology & Wetland Ecosystems offered by Egerton University (Kenya) and University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences (Austria) under the support of UNESCO-IHE DELFT.
KMFRI Kegati Aquaculture Centre
Freshwater Fish Breeding and Culture Systems
Fish Breeding and Culture Systems Management
  • 2010-2014:      University of Eldoret –DPhil Zoology (Animal Ecology)
  • 2006-2008:      Moi University –MPhil Zoology (Animal Ecology)
  • 1999-2003:      University of Eastern Africa, Baraton- BSc. Zoology
  • 1991-1994:      Kisii High School- Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
  • 1983-1990:      Bahyani Primary School- Kenya Certificate of Primary Education
  1. Orina PS, Hinzano S, Kyule D, Jacob A, Githukia CM, et al. (2023). Aquaculture and its conservation potential of critically endangered Jipe Tilapia (Oreochromis jipe) in Lake Jipe. Ann Mar Sci 7(1): 045-050. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17352/ams.000038
  2. Orina P, Ikaya L. Abel R, Akwany L and Chepkirui M. (2023). Effects of different substrates on growth and survival of Labeo victorianus fry towards its conservation along Mara Basin”. Open Journal of Ecology. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oje.2023.131004
  3. Chepkirui M, Orina PS, Orina T, Githukia C, Ochingo J, et al. (2023). Review on the role of women along the aquaculture value chain in Kenya. Ann Mar Sci 7(1): 021-024. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17352/ams.000034
  4. Munguti JM, Obiero KO, Iteba JO, Kirimi JG, Kyule DN, Orina PS, Githukia CM, Outa N, Ogello EO, Mboya JB, Ouko KO, Liti D, Yossa R and Tanga CM (2023) Role of multilateral development organizations, public and private investments in aquaculture subsector in Kenya. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 7:1208918.doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2023.1208918
  5. Wainaina M., Opiyo M.A, Charo-Karisa H, Orina P, Nyonje B. (2023). On-Farm Assessment of Different Fingerling Sizes of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) on Growth Performance, Survival and Yield. Aquaculture Studies, 23(2), AQUAST900. http://doi.org/10.4194/AQUAST900
  6. Maranga B., Kagali R., Omolo K, Orina P, Munguti J and Ogello E. (2023). Growth Performance of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Fed On Diets Containing Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia Illucens) Larvae Under Aquaponic System Aquaculture Studies, 23(5), AQUAST910. http://doi.org/10.4194/AQUAST910
  7. Maranga BO, Kagali RN, Omolo KM and Sagwe PO (2022). Effect of growth substrates on water quality, catfish (Clarias gariepinus) culture and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) propagation under aquaponic system. Livestock Research for Rural Development 34 (9) 2022.
  8. Githukia, C., Onyango, D., Lusweti, D., Ramkat, R., Kowenje, C., Miruka, J., Lung’ayia, H. and Orina, P. (2022) An Analysis of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in Lake Victoria, Kenya on Microcystin Toxicity. Open Journal of Ecology, 12, 198-210. https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2022.123012.
  9. Chepkirui M, Orina PS, Opiyo M, Muendo P, Mbogo K, et al. (2022) Growth performance of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed with water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) diets. Ann Mar Sci 6(1): 001-006. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.17352/ams.000026
  10. Adekola O, Gatonye M and Orina P. (2022). Status and Outlook for Climate Resilient Aquaculture in Kenya: Stakeholders Perspectives, Case Studies in the Environment 6 (1): 1544759.https://doi.org/10.1525/cse.2022.1544759 
  11. Douglas R, Albert G, Reuben O, Paul O, Hellen , Boniface G, Obed N, Omondi A. and Job O. (2022). Assessment of Heavy Metal Concentrations (Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn) in Wastewater from Gusii Treatment Plant in Kisii County, Kenya. Pan Africa Science Journal, 1(02), 122–138. https://doi.org/10.47787/pasj.v1i02.12
  12. Rayori D, Getabu A, Omondi R, Orina P, Gisacho B and Omondi A. (2021). Phytoplankton diversity in Gusii wastewater treatment plant in Kisii County, Kenya. Journal Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2021; 9(3):299-306. DOI: https://doi.org/10.22271/fish.2021.v9.i3d.2505
  13. Chepkirui M., Orina P., Opiyo M., Muendo P., Mbogo K. and Omondi R (2021). Fatty acids composition of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings fed diets containing different levels of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica). Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 5 (2021) 100156.
  14. Orina P., Ogello E., Kembenya E., Muthoni C., Musa S., Ombwa V., Mwainge V., Abwao J., Ondiba R., Kengere J., and Karoza S (2021). The state of cage culture in Lake Victoria: A focus on sustainability, rural economic empowerment, and food security. Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management, 24(1): 56–63, 2021.
  15. Onyango DM., Orina PS., Ramkat RC., Kowenje C., Githukia CM., Lusweti D and Lungaiya HBO (2019). Review of the current state of knowledge and the impact of microcystin in fish in Lake Victoria. Lakes & Reservoirs: 2020;00:1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12328
  16. Mbugua H., Muritu R., Orina P., Mziri V., Mugo J., Mwangata R., Obwanga B., Were E. and    Lewo R. (2020). Aquaculture Handbook. A Practical Guide to Aquaculture Value Chain in Kenya.
  17. Orina PS., Onyango DM., Lungayia H., Oduor A., Sifuna A. W., Otuya P., Owigar A.R., Kowenje CB., and Hinzano SM (2020). Water Quality of Selected Fishing Beaches of Lake Victoria Kenyan Gulf. Open Journal of Ecology, 10, 22-35.https://doi.org/10.4236/oje.2020.101002.
  18. Omweno JO, Orina PS, Getabu A and Outa NO. (2020). Growth and aquaculture potential of Tilapia jipe, Oreochromis jipe and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies 2020; 8(3): 395-399.
  19. Orina PS., Ogello E., Kembenya E., Githukia C., Musa S., Ombwa V., Mwainge VM., Abwao J., Ondiba RN and Okechi JK (2018). State of Cage Culture in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Laxpress Services, Nairobi, Kenya. 62 p. ISBN: 978-9966-114-79-2.
  20. Orina PS., Charo-Karisa H, Munguti JM, Boera P., Abwao J., Kyule D., Opiyo MA., Marcial H., Manyala J and Rasowo JO (2018). A comparative study of Labeo victorianus (Bouelenger, 1901) and Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) grown in polyculture systems. Lakes & Reservoirs Research & Management 2018; 00:1–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/lre.12202
  21. Nyonje BM, Opiyo M A., Orina PS., Abwao J., Wainaina M and Charo-Karisa H (2018). Current status of freshwater fish hatcheries, broodstock management and fingerling production in the Kenya aquaculture sector. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 30, Article #6. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd30/1/mary30006.html
  22. Ogada EO., Orina PS and Ogendi GO (2018). Effect of stocking density and diet on the performance of Jipe tilapia (Oreochromis jipe) cultured in hapas at Sagana, Kenya. International Journal of Advanced Research. 6(10): 296-308. DOI: 10.21474/IJAR01/7811
  23. Munguti JM., Obiero KO., Orina PS., Musa S., Mwaluma J., Mirera D., Ochiewo J., Kairo J. and Njiru JM. (Eds.) (2017). The State of Aquaculture in Kenya. Laxpress Services, Nairobi, Kenya. 133 p. ISBN: 978-9966-109-82-8.
  24. Opiyo MA., Charo-Karisa H., Nyonje B., Omollo B., Orina PS., Wainaina P., Obiro K and Munguti JM (2017). Good Aqauculture Practises for Seed Production in Kenya. Vol 1. 50 p. ISBN: 978-9966-100-07-8.
  25. Kyule_Muendo D., Munguti JM., Opiyo MA., Obiero KO., Githukia CM., Orina PS., Njiru JM and Charo-Karisa H (2017). Fish Recipe Book. 45 p. ISBN: 978-9966-103-63-6.
  26. Opiyo MA., Orina PS and Charo-Karisa H (2017). Fecundity, growth parameters and survival rate of three African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) strains under hatchery conditions. Journal of Aquaculture Engineering and Fisheries Research E-ISSN 2149-0236, DOI: 10.3153/JAEFR170.
  27. Nyachae M., Muya SM., Ogila K and Orina PS (2017). Effect of stocking density and diet on growth and survival of Labeo victorianus fish. International Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Research. 3(1): 2225-2241.
  28. Kwikiriza G., Tibihika PD., Barekye A., Beingana A and Orina PS (2016). Performance of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus (Clarridae) fry fed on live rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), formulated diet and a mixture of rotifers and formulated diet. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. 4(6): 11-15
  29. Nyonje BM., Opiyo MA., Orina PS., Abwao J., Wainaina M. and Charo-Karisa, H (2016). Status of Hatcheries, Broodstock and Fingerling Production in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa.
  30. Maranga B., Liti D., Matola G., Orina P (2016). Evaluation of the efficiency of wastewater stabilization system using macro- Invertebrates community and pollution tolerance index. International Journal of Innovative Research and Advanced Studies. Vol 3 Issue9.
  31. Orina PS., Rasowo J., Oyoo-Okoth E., Musa S., Munguti JM and Charo-Karisa H (2016). Combined effects of photoperiod and temperature on growth and survival of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1822) larvae under laboratory conditions, Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 28:1, 17-25, DOI: 10.1080/10454438.2015.1113763.
  32. Ngugi CC., Oyoo-Okoth E., Mugo-Bundi J., Orina PS., Chemoiwa EJ and Aloo PA (2015). Effects of dietary administration of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on the growth performance, biochemical, hematological, and immunological parameters in juvenile and adult Victoria Labeo (Labeo victorianus) challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunology. 2015 Jun; 44(2):533-41. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2015.03.025. Epub 2015 Mar 28.
  33. Opiyo MA., Orina PS., Kyule D., Munguti, JM., Nyonje BM and Charo-Karisa H. (2015). Growth performance and survival of three African Catfish (Clarias gariepinus, Burchell 1882) strains reared in hapas in Kenya. Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa.
  34. Musa S., Orina PS, Aura CM., Kundu R., Ogello EO., Munguti JM (2014). The effects of dietary Levels of protein and greenhouse on growth, behaviour and fecundity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) broodstock. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online). 2319-7064.
  35. Orina PS., Rasowo J., Gichana E., Maranga B and Charo-Karisa H (2014). Artificial breeding protocol and optimal breeding environment for Labeo victorianus (Boulenger, 1901). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 1(6): 138-143.
  36. Orina PS., Rasowo JO., Opiyo MA., Boera P., Abwao J and Charo-Karisa H (2014). Optimization of seed and brood stock transport densities for improved survival of African carp (Labeo victorianus, Boulenger, 1901). International Journal of Chemical Studies. ISSN: 2321- 4902, Volume 2 Issue 2.
  37. Abwao JO., Boera PN., Munguti JM., Orina PS and Ogello EO. (2014). The potential of periphyton based aquaculture for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) production. A review. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2(1): 147-152.Orina PS., Maina J., Wangia S., Karuri E.,
  38. Mbuthia P., Omolo B., Osure OG., Musa S and Munguti JM (2014). Situational analysis of Nile tilapia and African catfish hatcheries management: A case study of Kisii and Kirinyaga Counties in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 26 (5).Orina PS., Opiyo MA and Charo-
  39. Karisa, H. (2013). Optimization of seed and broodstock transport densities for improved survival of cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, L 1758). International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies. 2014; 1(5): 157-161.
  40. Maina JG., Mbuthia PG., Ngugi J., Omolo B., Orina, PS., Wangia SM., Karuri EG., Maitho T and Owiti GO (2014). Influence of Socio-economic factors, gender and fish farming enterprise and productivity project on fish farming practices in Kenya. Livestock Research for Rural Development Volume. 26 (2).
  41. Musa S., Aura CM, Owiti G., Nyonje B., Orina PS and Charo-Karisa H (2012). Fish farming enterprise productivity program (FFEPP) as an impetus to Oreochromis niloticus (L.) farming in Western Kenya: Lessons to learn. African Journal of Agricultural Research. Vol. 7(8), pp. 1324- 1330.
  42. Charo-Karisa H., Munguti JM., Ouma H., Masai MD., Opiyo M., Orina PS and Okechi J (2011). A fish farmer’s manual for beginners, students, and hatchery managers.
  43. Oyoo-Okoth E., Mucai M., Ngugi CC., Njenga EW., Ngure V, Orina PS., Chemoiwa EC and Wanjohi BK (2011). Zooplankton partitioning in a tropical alkaline-saline endorheic Lake Nakuru, Kenya: Spatial and temporal trends in relations to the environment. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 16:1-13.
  44. Charo-Karisa H., Orina PS., Opiyo MA., Munguti JM and Nyonje B (2010). Teaching Curriculum Development for Hatchery Managers and Fish Farmers in Kenya.
  45. Oyoo-Okoth E., Wim A., Osano O., Kraak HS., Ngure V., Makwali J and Orina PS (2010). Use of the fish endoparasite Ligula intestinalis (L., 1758) in an intermediate cyprinid host (Rastreneobola argentea) for biomonitoring heavy metal contamination in Lake Victoria, Kenya. Lakes & Reservoirs: Research and Management 15: 63–73.
 CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS                                                                                                 
  • Charo-Karisa H., Opiyo MA., Obiero K., Yongo E., Orina PS., Munguti JM (2013). Optimizing aquaculture productivity through enhanced seed, feed and appropriate technology development in Kenya. Conference proceeding at the 2nd ASARECA General Assembly and Scientific Conference, 9th –13th December 2013, Bujumbura
  • Mwangi JM., Maina JG., Gachuiri CK and Orina PS (2016). Growth response of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) to different protein levels in a semi- intensive production system. Conference
  • Yongo E., Opiyo MA., Munguti JM., Kyule D., Orina PS., Obiero K and Charo-Karisa H (2013). Mobilizing the aquaculture sector for economic and sustainable growth: Case study of Vihiga, Kirinyaga and Kilifi Counties in the republic of Kenya. ASARECA Conference
  • Wainaina M., Opiyo MA., Orina PS and Charo-Karisa H (2013). Growth performance of different sizes at stocking of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) fingerlings cultured in semi- intensive ponds. ASARECA Conference Proceeding.
  • Orina PS., Mirera D and Charo-Karisa H (2012). Culture Systems in Kenya. An Overview. ARK I Conference
  • Kembenya EM., Orina PS, Okechi J., Githukia C., Boera P and Munguti JM (2018). Diplostomatid parasite affecting cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus ) from Kisii, Kenya. Jsps Core-To-Core Program - Asia-Africa Science Platforms Joint Seminar Imperial Hotel, Kisumu, Kenya 21 March 2016 Conference Proceeding.
Funded Full proposal title Expected Impact/Benefit Grant Amount USD
Newton Fund Global Research Partnership (GRP) in Aquaculture (KMFRI, University of Stirling UK, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Sokoine University Tanzania, Machakos University Kenya, University of Delhi, Goa University, Kerala University India

Development of alternative sustainable fish feeds to promote human health using novel non-conventional indigenous ingredients




Improved livelihoods 150,000,000
Agriculture Sector Development Support Programme (ASDSP) Agriculture Department, KALRO and KMFRI Transforming Kenya’s agricultural Sector into an innovative, commercially orientated industry that will contribute to poverty reduction, improved food security and equity. Improved livelihoods  70,000,000
NRF 2017 Maseno University, MMUST, Moi University and KMFRI Molecular application of protein phosphatase 2A in Cyanobacteria microcystin quantification and degradation in water purification systems.  Lake Victoria water resource sustainability  200,000
GAIN Marketplace. Nyabera ICL and KMFRI Gender sensitive Integrated Fish, Livestock and Crop for food, nutritional security and employment.  Improved livelihoods  350,000
 Kenya Climate Smart Agriculture Productivity Programme  Building Sustainable and Competitive Seed Systems Improved livelihoods  26,000
 IFAD-ABDP Detailed aquaculture Value Chain Assessment in Kenya  Promote Aquaculture   70,000
Conservation International Visualizing Aquaculture Potential in Kenya  Promote Aquaculture  306,122
Conservation International Fish and Limnological Survey in Sindo Bay, Lake Victoria, Kenya  Fisheries conservation  8,260